One of the Fastest Growing Towns in Connecticut
With agriculture, Oxford was known for its variety of mills along its waterways. A number of mills, including a sawmill, grist mill and paper mill, were located at the site of what is now Southford Falls on Route 188, north of the Quaker Farms section of town. Hospitality was another industry in town since the main thoroughfare, established in 1798 as The Oxford Turnpike and now known as Route 67, was used to transport agricultural products from Litchfield County to markets in New York. Two of the stops along the way were the Oxford House, still a restaurant in the center of town, and the Washband Tavern, a notable building overlooking the southern end of Route 67. Dairy and chicken farming were chief industries for many years, also. Eventually, a large part of the population went to work in factory towns stretching from Bridgeport to Naugatuck and Waterbury.
Oxford has had its ups and downs in population trends. In 1800, shortly after the town was incorporated, it had just over 1,000 residents. The number increased slightly and then decreased, followed by some fluctuation until an all-time low of just less than 1,000 residents in the 1890s. In the 1950s, Oxford's population reached 2,000 and has been rising substantially ever since. Today the population is greater then 12,000.